Immunofluorescence (IF)

Tissue-Cell Specific Applications




Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

Bansi DS, Bauducci M, Bergqvist A, Boberg K, Broome U, Chapman R, Fleming K, Jorgensen R, Lindor K, Rosina F, Schrumpf E.

Detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in primary sclerosing cholangitis: a comparison of the alkaline phosphatase and immunofluorescent techniques.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1997 Jun;9(6):575-80. Erratum in: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997 Dec;9(12):1257.
PMID: 9222729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Tomov A, Tsanev N, Tsvetkova E.

Specific staining of bacilli by means of immuno-indian-ink method and immunofluorescent method.
Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig A]. 1979 Mar;243(1):119-24.
PMID: 87066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Bacillus spores

Phillips AP, Martin KL.

Variations on the staining method in quantitative indirect immunofluorescence assays for Bacillus spores, and the use of fluorescein--protein A.
J Immunol Methods. 1982 Nov 12;54(3):361-9.
PMID: 6184416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Bayer A, Pacolakova J.

Simple immunofluorescent method for identification of blood group in human tissues.
Acta Histochem. 1985;77(2):209-11.
PMID: 3938173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Brutel de la Riviere A, Verhoef-Karssen PR, Bosma A, Kr vd Borne AE, Engelfriet P.

Specific antisera against human blood cells applicable in the indirect immunofluorescence technique.
Scand J Immunol. 1976;5(9):1065-74.
PMID: 795002 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Blood vessel

Kittelberger R, Davis PF, Stehbens WE.

An improved immunofluorescence technique for the histological examination of blood vessel tissue.
Acta Histochem. 1989;86(2):137-42.
PMID: 2481931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Umoh JU, Ezeokoli CD, Okoh AE.

Immunofluorescent staining of trypsinized formalin-fixed brain smears for rabies antigen: results compared with those obtained by standard methods for 221 suspect animal cases in Nigeria.
J Hyg (Lond). 1985 Feb;94(1):129-34.
PMID: 2982942 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fazekas A, Komoly S.

The application of immunofluorescent antibody method in research of human brain edema.
Neurosci Lett. 1980 May 1;17(3):323-7.
PMID: 6763164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wilmes F, Hossmann KA.

A specific immunofluorescence technique for the demonstration of vasogenic brain edema in paraffin embedded material.
Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1979 Jan 12;45(1):47-51.
PMID: 367045 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Reynolds R, Herschkowitz N.

Simultaneous immunofluorescence and autoradiography: a useful technique for investigating neurotransmitter uptake by neurons and glia in primary central nervous system culture.
Brain Res. 1987 Nov;433(1):1-11.
PMID: 3315123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Thomson CE, Griffiths IR.

Imprinting as a rapid technique for assessing the morphology of the central nervous system by immunofluorescence.
J Neurosci Methods. 2000 Jul 31;100(1-2):85-91.
PMID: 11040370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Skirboll L, Hokfelt T, Norell G, Phillipson O, Kuypers HG, Bentivoglio M, Catsman-Berrevoets CE, Visser TJ, Steinbusch H, Verhofstad A, et al.

A method for specific transmitter identification of retrogradely labeled neurons: immunofluorescence combined with fluorescence tracing.
Brain Res. 1984 Dec;320(2-3):99-127.
PMID: 6084535 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Chlamydia trachomatis

Ciotti RA, Sondheimer SJ, Nachamkin I.

Detecting Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence using a Cytobrush sampling technique.
Genitourin Med. 1988 Aug;64(4):245-6. Erratum in: Genitourin Med 1989 Jan;65(1):62.
PMID: 3049302 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ciliated protozoans

Santangelo G, Bruno P.

An immunofluorescence technique for staining ciliated protozoans: highlighting cytoplasmic microtubular arrays and stages of micronuclear meiosis.
Micron. 2001 Feb;32(2):207-10.
PMID: 10936463 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Soliman AM.

An improved technique for the study of immunofluorescence using non-decalcified frozen guinea pig cochlea.
J Laryngol Otol. 1988 Mar;102(3):215-8.
PMID: 3282016 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Dictyostelium cell

Hagedorn M, Neuhaus EM, Soldati T.

Optimized fixation and immunofluorescence staining methods for Dictyostelium cells.
Methods Mol Biol. 2006;346:327-38.
PMID: 16957300 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Clevenger CV, Bauer KD, Epstein AL.

A method for simultaneous nuclear immunofluorescence and DNA content quantitation using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry.
Cytometry. 1985 May;6(3):208-14.
PMID: 3888556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Endocrine cell

L'Hermite A, Ferrand R, Dubois MP, Andersen AC.

Detection of endocrine cells by immunofluorescence method in the gastroenteropancreatic system of the adult eel, glass-eel, and leptocephalic larva (Anguilla anguilla L.).
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1985 Jun;58(3):347-59.
PMID: 2861142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Endomyocardial biopsy

Hammond EH, Hansen JK, Spencer LS, Jensen A, Yowell RL.

Immunofluorescence of endomyocardial biopsy specimens: methods and interpretation.
J Heart Lung Transplant. 1993 Mar-Apr;12(2):S113-24.
PMID: 8476881 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Colombo PC, Ashton AW, Celaj S, Talreja A, Banchs JE, Dubois NB, Marinaccio M, Malla S, Lachmann J, Ware JA, Le Jemtel TH.

Biopsy coupled to quantitative immunofluorescence: a new method to study the human vascular endothelium.
J Appl Physiol. 2002 Mar;92(3):1331-8.
PMID: 11842075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Entamoeba histolytica

Gilman R, Islam M, Paschi S, Goleburn J, Ahmad F.

Comparison of conventional and immunofluorescent techniques for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in rectal biopsies.
Gastroenterology. 1980 Mar;78(3):435-9.
PMID: 6153164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Jahnsen FL, Haraldsen G, Rugtveit J, Halstensen TS, Brandtzaeg P.

Differential interference contrast microscopy combined with immunofluorescence: a new method to phenotype eosinophils in situ.
J Immunol Methods. 1994 Jul 12;173(1):77-91.
PMID: 8034989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Fetomaternal haemorrhage

McWilliam AC, Davies SC.

Detection of fetomaternal haemorrhage by an immunofluorescence technique.
J Clin Pathol. 1985 Aug;38(8):919-20.
PMID: 3928702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Abuknesha RA, al-Mazeedi HM, Price RG.

AMC-anti-FITC conjugates: novel reagents for amplified immunochemical techniques. Immunofluorescent staining of human fibroblasts.
Histochem J. 1992 Sep;24(9):655-62.
PMID: 1385365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hennig UG, Rudd NL, Hoar DI.

Kinetochore immunofluorescence in micronuclei: a rapid method for the in situ detection of aneuploidy and chromosome breakage in human fibroblasts.
Mutat Res. 1988 Dec;203(6):405-14.
PMID: 3057373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Eckert H.

Immunofluorescence method for the detection of fungi in bronchial secretions
Z Erkr Atmungsorgane. 1983;160(2):157-60. German.
PMID: 6344455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Glial Cell

Bajetto A, Barbero S, Bonavia R, Chimini G, Schettini G.

Immunofluorescence and biochemical techniques to detect nuclear localization of ciliary neurotrophic factor in glial cells.
Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2000 Jul;5(3):273-81.
PMID: 10906493 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Fredens K, Dahl R, Venge P.

An immunofluorescent method for a specific demonstration of granulocytes and some of their proteins (ECP and CCP).
Histochemistry. 1986;84(3):247-50.
PMID: 3519546 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Schmidt-Melbye A, Kolstad A, Hannestad K.

Antibodies to granulocytes detected by an indirect immunofluorescence method not requiring chemical modification of cells.
Transfusion. 1985 Mar-Apr;25(2):165-9.
PMID: 3885485 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Yamamoto A, Wenthold RJ Jr, Zhang J, Herman EH, Ferrans VJ.

Immunofluorescence techniques for the identification of immune effector cells in rat heart: applications to the study of the myocarditis induced by interleukin-2.
J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1995 Jan;27(1):307-19.
PMID: 7539083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Immunoglobulin-producing cells

Stepankova R, Kovaru F.

Immunoglobulin-producing cells in lymphatic tissues of germfree and conventional rabbits as detected by an immunofluorescence method.
Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1985;30(3):291-4.
PMID: 4040051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Islet cell

Stefan Y, Malaisse-Lagae F, Yoon JW, Notkins AL, Orci L.

Virus-induced diabetes in mice: a quantitative evaluation of islet cell population by immunofluorescence technique.
Diabetologia. 1978 Nov;15(5):395-401.
PMID: 216598 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kobayashi T, Sugimoto T, Itoh T, Kosaka K, Tanaka T, Suwa S, Sato K, Tsuji K.

The prevalence of islet cell antibodies in Japanese insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients studied by indirect immunofluorescence and by a new method.
Diabetes. 1986 Mar;35(3):335-40.
PMID: 3512344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Okumura H, Matsumto K, Hashimoto K, Yoshikawa K.

A new method for quantifying keratinocyte differentiation using immunofluorescent staining of involucrin and cytofluorography.
Exp Cell Res. 1991 Feb;192(2):647-50.
PMID: 1988301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cirillo N, Femiano F, Dell'ermo A, Arnese P, Gombos F, Lanza A.

A novel method to investigate pemphigus-induced keratinocyte dysmorphisms through living cell immunofluorescence microscopy.
Virchows Arch. 2007 Jun;450(6):683-90. Epub 2007 Apr 21.
PMID: 17450380 [PubMed - in process]



Bolton WK, Mesnard RM.

New technique of kidney tissue processing for immunofluorescence microscopy: formol sucrose/gum sucrose/paraffin.
Lab Invest. 1982 Aug;47(2):206-13.
PMID: 7050531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Lipid droplets

DiDonato D, Brasaemle DL.

Fixation methods for the study of lipid droplets by immunofluorescence microscopy.
J Histochem Cytochem. 2003 Jun;51(6):773-80.
PMID: 12754288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Trotman W, Beckett T, Goncz KK, Beatty BG, Weiss DJ.

Dual Y chromosome painting and in situ cell-specific immunofluorescence staining in lung tissue: an improved method of identifying donor marrow cells in lung following bone marrow transplantation.
Histochem Cell Biol. 2004 Jan;121(1):73-9. Epub 2003 Dec 12.
PMID: 14673657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Laskay T, Andersson U, Andersson J, Kiessling R, DeLey M.

An immunofluorescent method for identifying individual IFN-gamma-producing lymphocytes.
J Immunol Methods. 1986 Dec 4;95(1):1-7.
PMID: 2431063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Korcakova L, Salkova J, Lejnar J, Kaslik J, Raska I.

Labelling of a T lymphocyte subpopulation with monoclonal antibody bound to colloidal gold. Correlation with the indirect immunofluorescence method.
Folia Biol (Praha). 1988;34(4):209-14.
PMID: 3071478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Galton J, Ivanyi J.

An immunofluorescent technique for the detection of lymphocyte alloantigens.
J Immunol Methods. 1977;17(1-2):57-61.
PMID: 333028 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Janossy G, Thomas JA, Pizzolo G.

The analysis of lymphoid subpopulations in normal and malignant tissues by immunofluorescence techniques.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1981;101(1):1-11.
PMID: 6456270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Chollet-Martin S, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA.

Enumeration of the T4 positive and T8 positive lymphocytes in AIDS and related syndromes. Comparison of the immunogold and the immunofluorescence techniques.
J Immunol Methods. 1986 Jul 24;91(2):271-4.
PMID: 3090151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cherry LM, Shah SA.

A technique for simultaneous antikinetochore immunofluorescence staining and Q-banding in chromosomes from human lymphocytes.
Stain Technol. 1987 Jul;62(4):221-5.
PMID: 2442860 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mills K, Armitage R, Worman C.

An indirect rosette technique for the identification and separation of human lymphocyte populations by monoclonal antibodies: a comparison with immunofluorescence methods.
Immunol Lett. 1983 May;6(5):241-6.
PMID: 6224744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bourguignon LY, Tokuyasu KT, Singer SJ.

The capping of lymphocytes and other cells, studied by an improved method for immunofluorescence staining of frozen sections.
J Cell Physiol. 1978 Jun;95(3):239-57.
PMID: 77276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wybran J, Rosenberg J, Romasco F.

Immunogold staining: an alternative method for lymphocyte subset enumeration. Comparison with immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.
J Immunol Methods. 1985 Feb 11;76(2):229-38.
PMID: 3882835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Nakstad B, Lyberg T, Baklien K, Boye NP.

Antigenic specificity of human alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes studied by an immunofluorescence technique.
J Pathol. 1989 Feb;157(2):99-107.
PMID: 2466114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mast Cell

Botchkarev VA, Eichmuller S, Peters EM, Pietsch P, Johansson O, Maurer M, Paus R.

A simple immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous visualization of mast cells and nerve fibers reveals selectivity and hair cycle--dependent changes in mast cell--nerve fiber contacts in murine skin.
Arch Dermatol Res. 1997 Apr;289(5):292-302.
PMID: 9164640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Simmonds DH, Seagull RW, Setterfield G.

Evaluation of techniques for immunofluorescent staining of microtubules in cultured plant cells.
J Histochem Cytochem. 1985 Apr;33(4):345-52.
PMID: 2579999 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Motor endplates

Sondag-Tschroots IR, Schulz-Raateland RC, van Walbeek HK, Feltkamp TE.

Antibodies to motor endplates demonstrated with the immunofluorescence technique.
Clin Exp Immunol. 1979 Aug;37(2):323-7.
PMID: 387311 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mycoplasma colonies

Bradbury JM, Oriel CA, Jordan FT.

Simple method for immunofluorescent identification of mycoplasma colonies.
J Clin Microbiol. 1976 Apr;3(4):449-52.
PMID: 770501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mycoplasma hominis

Hirai Y, Kanatani T, Ono M, Matsushita O, Kanemasa Y.

An indirect immunofluorescence method for detection of Mycoplasma hominis in vaginal smears.
Microbiol Immunol. 1991;35(10):831-9.
PMID: 1779888 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



McKane AM, McMillan SA, Conlan SK, McNeill TA.

Comparison of immunofluorescence and an immunohistochemical technique for the detection of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody.
Ir J Med Sci. 1991 Mar;160(3):93-5.
PMID: 1717399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ocular fundus

Scheiffarth OF, Zrenner E, Disko R, Stefani FH, Brabander B.

Intraocular in vivo immunofluorescence. A new technique for visualizing structures of the ocular fundus.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990 Feb;31(2):272-6.
PMID: 2105916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Ali Akbar S, Nicolaides KH, Brown PR.

The localisation of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in human normal term placenta by an immunofluorescence technique.
J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 Jan;18(1):44-6.
PMID: 15512001 [PubMed]


Plasma cell

Kingston D, Pearson JR, Penna FJ.

Plasma cell counts on human jejunal biopsy specimens examined by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques: a comparative study.
J Clin Pathol. 1981 Apr;34(4):381-5.
PMID: 7016923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Pleural fluid cell

Keyhani-Rofagha S, O'Toole R, Meister RK, Neff J.

Identification of cultured pleural fluid cells by a direct immunofluorescence technique.
Anal Quant Cytol. 1984 Dec;6(4):238-42.
PMID: 6397083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Pneumocystis carinii

Orholm M, Holten-Andersen W, Lundgren JD.

Improved detection of Pneumocystis carinii by an immunofluorescence technique using monoclonal antibodies.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990 Dec;9(12):880-5.
PMID: 2073898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Proliferating cell

Ramshaw AL, Parums DV.

Combined immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence method to determine the phenotype of proliferating cell populations.
J Clin Pathol. 1992 Nov;45(11):1015-7. Erratum in: J Clin Pathol 1992 Dec;45(12):1124.
PMID: 1485903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rickettsia rickettsii

Walker DH, Harrison A, Henderson F, Murphy FA.

Identification of Rickettsia rickettsii in a guinea pig model by immunofluorescent and electron microscopic techniques.
Am J Pathol. 1977 Feb;86(2):343-58.
PMID: 402079 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Seligman PA, Allen RH, Kirchanski SJ, Natale PJ.

Automated analysis of reticulocytes using fluorescent staining with both acridine orange and an immunofluorescence technique.
Am J Hematol. 1983 Feb;14(1):57-66.
PMID: 6301264 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Kuster CE, Althouse GC.

A technique for preserving retained distal cytoplasmic droplets in situ for immunofluorescence evaluation of ejaculated porcine spermatozoa.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2003 Nov;33(4):301-10.
PMID: 14606687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Streptococcus mutans

Bush MS, Challacombe SJ, Newman HN.

A method for the identification of Streptococcus mutans in gingival margin plaque by immunofluorescence.
Caries Res. 1990;24(1):23-9.
PMID: 1688401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


T Cell

Patel R, Williams C, Patel DR.

T cell and T cell subset determination in normal peripheral blood: comparison of the indirect immunofluorescence and lymphocytotoxicity techniques.
Experientia. 1984 Dec 15;40(12):1412-3.
PMID: 6239789 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Thoracic aorta

Bartholomew JS, Anderson JC.

Investigation of relationships between collagens, elastin and proteoglycans in bovine thoracic aorta by immunofluorescence techniques.
Histochem J. 1983 Dec;15(12):1177-90.
PMID: 6358143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Thyrotropic cells

Tal E, Savion S, Abraham M, Hanna N.

An immunofluorescent method for identification of isolated thyrotropic cells.
Experientia. 1978 Apr 15;34(4):536-7.
PMID: 346370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]