Immunofluorescence (IF)

Tumor, Disease & Diagnostic Applications




General Methods

Ongley RC.

Cutaneous immunofluorescent microscopy: a practical diagnostic technique.
Can Med Assoc J. 1978 Jan 21;118(2):151-2.
PMID: 393375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Blacksell SD, Bryant NJ, Paris DH, Doust JA, Sakoda Y, Day NP.

Scrub typhus serologic testing with the indirect immunofluorescence method as a diagnostic gold standard: a lack of consensus leads to a lot of confusion.
Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 1;44(3):391-401. Epub 2007 Jan 3. Review.
PMID: 17205447 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Balkon J, Bidanset JH, Lynch VD.

Immunofluorescence detection of drugs in postmortem tissues: a new technique with potential for assessment of drug influence in cause of death.
J Forensic Sci. 1980 Jan;25(1):88-94.
PMID: 6156225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Popp W, Zwick H, Rauscher H.

Indirect immunofluorescent test on spore sampling preparations: a technique for diagnosis of individual mold allergies.
Stain Technol. 1988 Jul;63(4):249-53.
PMID: 3064361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Thomas V, Sinniah B, Leng YP.

Assessment of the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the indirect immunofluorescent technique for the diagnosis of amebiasis.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1981 Jan;30(1):57-62.
PMID: 7011073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Autoimmune diseases

Luca IC.

Indirect immunofluorescence--a method for diagnosis of autoimmune endocrine diseases, by putting in evidence serum auto-antibodies.
Rom J Morphol Embryol. 1998 Jan-Dec;44(1-4):61-4.
PMID: 15678844 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bayer PM, Fabian B, Hubl W.

Immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in autoimmune disease diagnostics--technique, benefits, limitations and applications.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 2001;235:68-76.
PMID: 11712695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Thorpe SJ, Huehns ER.

A new approach for the antenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia: a double labelling immunofluorescence microscopy technique.
Br J Haematol. 1983 Jan;53(1):103-12.
PMID: 6336648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Bladder carcinoma

Cooper HS, D'Elia FL.

Comparison between the methods of indirect immunofluorescence and specific red cell adherence in detecting ABH iso-antigens in bladder carcinoma.
Am J Clin Pathol. 1982 May;77(5):548-54.
PMID: 7044101 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hammou JC, Fella C, Vacant J, Maiolini R, Masseyeff R.

Improvement of the demonstration of A, B, H surface antigens in bladder tumors by a simple immunofluorescence technique.
J Urol. 1982 Dec;128(6):1183-7.
PMID: 6759688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Bullous disease

Maize JC, Provost TT.

Value of immunofluorescent techniques in studies of bullous disease.
Am J Dermatopathol. 1983 Feb;5(1):67-72.
PMID: 6344686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Chlamydia trachomatis

Neinstein LS, Rabinovitz S.

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. A study of the direct immunofluorescence technique and a review diagnostic limitations.
J Adolesc Health Care. 1989 Jan;10(1):10-5. Review.
PMID: 2646268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Colorectal carcinoma

Keller R, Winde G, Eisenhawer C, Herwig R, Terpe HJ, Domschke W, Foerster EC.

Immunoscopy--a technique combining endoscopy and immunofluorescence for diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma.
Gastrointest Endosc. 1998 Feb;47(2):154-61.
PMID: 9512281 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)

Hunt JG, Field PR, Murphy AM.

Immunoglobulin responses to Coxiella burnetii (Q fever): single-serum diagnosis of acute infection, using an immunofluorescence technique.
Infect Immun. 1983 Feb;39(2):977-81.
PMID: 6339396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Dental periapical lesions

Torabinejade M, Kettering JD.

Detection of immune complexes in human dental periapical lesions by anticomplement immunofluorescence technique.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1979 Sep;48(3):256-61.
PMID: 384328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

Fine JD, Eady RA, Levy ML, Hejtmancik JF, Courtney KB, Carpenter RJ, Holbrook KA, Hawkins HK.

Prenatal diagnosis of dominant and recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: application and limitations in the use of KF-1 and LH 7:2 monoclonal antibodies and immunofluorescence mapping technique.
J Invest Dermatol. 1988 Nov;91(5):465-71.
PMID: 3049834 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Wittner M, Maayan S, Farrer W, Tanowitz HB.

Diagnosis of giardiasis by two methods. Immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1983 Oct;107(10):524-7.
PMID: 6351801 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Glial tumors

Gambetti P, Roessmann U, Velasco ME.

Immunofluorescence technique for rapid diagnosis of glial tumors.
Am J Surg Pathol. 1980 Jun;4(3):277-80.
PMID: 6994513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Nakopoulou L, Papacharalampous N.

Glomerulonephritis in malignant extra-renal neoplasms. Experimental study on mice using the method of immunofluorescence.
Res Exp Med (Berl). 1978 Jan 30;172(1):1-6.
PMID: 205929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Heart Disease

Yamakawa K, Fukuta S, Kimura Y, Hayashi Y, Kusukawa R.

Circulating anti-heart antibodies in heart diseases detected using an immunofluorescent technique.
Jpn Circ J. 1983 Oct;47(10):1173-8.
PMID: 6195361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Herpes simplex keratitis

Stenkvist EO, Brege KG.

Application of immunofluorescent technique in the cytologic diagnosis of human herpes simplex keratitis.
Acta Cytol. 1975 Sep-Oct;19(5):411-4.
PMID: 170767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Onno M, Jestin A, Vannier P, Kaiser C.

Diagnosis of swine influenza with an immunofluorescence technique using monoclonal antibodies.
Vet Q. 1990 Oct;12(4):251-4.
PMID: 2176753 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Krause JR, Brody JP, Kaplan SS, Penchansky L.

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in acute leukemia: a study of 100 cases comparing an immunoperoxidase (PAP) vs immunofluorescent method.
Am J Hematol. 1986 Jun;22(2):179-84.
PMID: 3518417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kadin M, Billing RJ.

Immunofluorescent method for positive identification of null-cell type acute lymphocytic leukemias: use of heterologous antiserum.
Blood. 1977 Nov;50(5):771-82.
PMID: 332257 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Liver disease

Tsuji T, Naito K, Araki K, Onoue K, Nozaki H, Nagashima H.

Tissue localization of C1q in HBs antigen positive liver disease patients by direct immunofluorescent technique.
Acta Med Okayama. 1977 Feb;31(1):81-9.
PMID: 193361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Brandtzaeg P, Rognum TO.

Evaluation of tissue preparation methods and paired immunofluorescence staining for immunocytochemistry of lymphomas.
Histochem J. 1983 Jul;15(7):655-89.
PMID: 6350234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mycoplasma pulmonis infection

Kraft V, Meyer B, Thunert A, Deerberg F, Rehm S.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pulmonis infection of rats by an indirect immunofluorescence test compared with 4 other diagnostic methods.
Lab Anim. 1982 Oct;16(4):369-73.
PMID: 6757575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


MYH9 disorders

Yoshinari M, Kunishima S, Miyabayashi S, Saito H, Tsuchiya S.

A unique immunofluorescence method promotes accurate diagnosis in MYH9 disorders: a case report.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004 Sep;26(9):579-83.
PMID: 15342975 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Neurological disease

Bayer AS, Galpin JE, Theofilopoulos AN, Guze LB.

Neurological disease associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonitis: demonstration of viable Mycoplasma pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid and blood by radioisotopic and immunofluorescent tissue culture techniques.
Ann Intern Med. 1981 Jan;94(1):15-20.
PMID: 6778283 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Oral pemphigus

Laskaris G, Papanicolaou S, Angelopoulos A.

Immunofluorescent study of cytologic smears in oral pemphigus: A simple diagnostic technique.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1981 May;51(5):531-4.
PMID: 7017534 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Renal diseases

Shimizu F, Fukui M, Hamajima K, Murata M.

Application of double staining technique and incident light fluorescence microscopy to immunofluorescence studies on renal diseases.
Jpn J Exp Med. 1975 Feb;45(1):25-31.
PMID: 778445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Respiratory viral infections

Fulton RE, Middleton PJ.

Comparison of immunofluorescence and isolation techniques in the diagnosis of respiratory viral infections of children.
Infect Immun. 1974 Jul;10(1):92-101.
PMID: 4367119 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rheumatoid arthritis

Berthelot JM, Maugars Y, Audrain M, Castagne A, Prost A.

Impact of using stored cells for immunofluorescence detection of antiperinuclear factor on sensitivity of the method for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.
Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1995 Jul-Sep;62(7-8):507-12.
PMID: 8574614 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rho (D)

Fuhrman HC, Klink F, Grzejszczyk G, Vossberg A, Poschmann A, Geusendam G, Froster-Iskenius U, Schwinger E.

First trimester diagnosis of Rho (D) with an immunofluorescence technique after chorionic villus sampling.
Prenat Diagn. 1987;7(1):17-21.
PMID: 3103117 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Walker DH, Cain BG.

A method for specific diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever on fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue by immunofluorescence.
J Infect Dis. 1978 Feb;137(2):206-9.
PMID: 342642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Bahl AK, Kumar MC, York MD, Pomeroy BS.

Direct immunofluorescent technique in diagnosis of experimental salmonellosis of turkeys.
Avian Dis. 1975 Jan-Mar;19(1):59-66.
PMID: 1091255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Skin diseases

Gammon WR, Robinson T, Briggaman RA, Wheeler CE Jr.

Double immunofluorescence microscopy: a method for localizing immune deposits in skin diseases associated with linear basement membrane zone immunofluorescence.
J Invest Dermatol. 1982 Nov;79(5):312-7.
PMID: 6752293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Chuang TY, Deng JS, Young LK, Lu YC.

Rapid diagnosis of sporotrichosis by immunofluorescent method.
Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Xue Za Zhi. 1975 Dec;8(4):259-61.
PMID: 780072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Transmissible gastroenteritis

Solorzano RF, Morin M, Morehouse LG.

The use of immunofluorescence techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of transmissible gastroenteritis of swine.
Can J Comp Med. 1978 Oct;42(4):385-91.
PMID: 217505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Katende JM, Musoke AJ, Nantulya VM, Goddeeris BM.

A new method for fixation and preservation of trypanosomal antigens for use in the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for diagnosis of bovine trypanosomiasis.
Trop Med Parasitol. 1987 Mar;38(1):41-4.
PMID: 3299658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Tubal factor infertility

Guerra-Infante FM, Carballo-Perea R, Zamora-Ruiz A, Lopez-Hurtado M, Flores-Medina S, Contreras GM.

Evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis as a method for diagnosing tubal factor infertility in Mexican women.
Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2003 Mar-Apr;48(2):74-82.
PMID: 12779293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Tumour vessels

Berndt A, Johannesson J, Haas M, Arkona C, Katenkamp D, Wiederanders B, Hyckel P, Kosmehl H.

Simultaneous enzyme overlay membrane (EOM)-based in situ zymography and immunofluorescence technique reveals cathepsin B-like activity in a subset of tumour vessels.
Histochem Cell Biol. 2000 Jul;114(1):63-8.
PMID: 10959823 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]