TG2/tTG (Tissue Transglutaminase) Antibody Review





  • differentiation-specific marker. PMID: 15735752

  • a marker of inflammatory myopathies. PMID: 15752564

  • a diagnostic marker of gluten sensitive enteropathy. PMID: 10474519

  • tTG cleavage as a valuable biochemical marker of caspase 3 activation during the late execution phase of apoptosis. PMID: 10556977

  • a marker of apoptosis during treatment and progression of prostate cancer. PMID: 10569613

Normal Expression

  • In reptilian epidermis transglutaminase is mainly localized in 0.15-0.3 microm dense granules or diffuse in transitional alpha-keratogenic cells. In beta-keratogenic cells few small dense granules show a weak immunolabeling. Transglutaminase is present in nuclei of terminal differentiating alpha- and beta-keratinocytes, as in those of mature inner and outer root sheath. PMID: 15468051

Abnormal Expression

  • An ELISA used to measure IgA tTG antibody is an excellent tool to screen for celiac disease and may prove useful for monitoring response to treatment. PMID: 11185530

  • high prevalence of tTGA reactivity in patients with peripheral nerve disorders or MND. PMID: 16774628

  • TG2 expression contributes to the development of chemoresistance in malignant melanoma cells by exploiting integrin-mediated cell survival signaling pathways. PMID: 16818508

  • Tissue transglutaminase antibodies ELISA provide a sensitive test of the gluten-free diet maintenance in patients with coeliac disease. PMID: 11852810

  • strongly positive tTG results are not specific in individual patients. PMID: 14760428

Expression Alteration

  • the first demonstration that tTG is increased in AD in vivo. Our results suggest that tTG may be a powerful biochemical marker of the acute degenerating process in vivo. PMID: 12460550




  • reactions in the tissue transglutaminase (TGc) ELISA used for diagnosis of gluten-sensitive disease. PMID: 16987503

  • concentrations of tTG in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 84 patients using ELISA assays were investigated. PMID: 12460550

  • Serum samples of all patients were examined simultaneously for IgAEmA titer by indirect immunofluorescence and IgAtTG level by ELISA test. PMID: 11852810


  • By using immunohistochemistry, transglutaminase-2 protein was detected in 48 of 57 breast tumors (84%), with epithelial expression in 26 of 41 (63%) ductal invasive carcinomas and in all 6 (100%) lobular invasive carcinomas. PMID: 16826431

  • the immunohistochemical demonstration of tissue transglutaminase may serve as a simple marker for apoptotic epithelial cells in tissue sections. PMID: 10857483

  • apoptosis was evaluated by staining for DNA fragmentation (TUNEL technique) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG). PMID: 10569613


  • Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent staining experiments, we observed that tTG forms a complex with VEGFR-2 on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm of EC. Stimulation of EC with VEGF resulted in translocation of the tTG-VEGFR-2 complex from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. PMID: 16914140