Platelet (Thrombocyte) Markers




Platelets or thrombocytes are the cell fragments circulating in the blood that are involved in the cellular mechanisms of primary hemostasis leading to the formation of blood clots. Dysfunction or low levels of platelets predisposes to bleeding, while high levels, although usually asymptomatic, may increase the risk of thrombosis.




AK (adenylate kinase)

  • can be used as an alternative to LDH for studies of lytic processes during platelet storage. PMID: 2165645

Annexin V

  • an intracellular platelets glycoprotein, is a new marker of platelet storage lesion: correlation with dMPV. PMID: 10174688

  • a platelet activation marker. PMID: 12738400

BTG (beta-thromboglobulin)

  • BTG is superior to TSP (plasma thrombospondin) for evaluation of platelet activation during in vivo CPB (cardiopulmonary bypass), whereas TSP and BTG are virtually identical as markers in vitro. PMID: 10904102, PMID: 6181767

  • During activation, blood platelets (PLT) release a number of micromolecular compounds, of which P-selectin and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) are considered the major markers of the activation. PMID: 17007267





  • perceived as an activation marker of platelets indicating enhanced aggregability and secretion of alpha-granular content. PMID: 11861803

CD62P (P-selectin)

CD63 (glycoprotein-53)

Glycocalicin (GC)

  • The GC concentration correlates well with sensitive platelet (activation) parameters, rendering it a sensitive and convenient parameter for platelet activation. PMID: 10971210

GMP-140 (platelet alpha-granule membrane protein)

  • an alpha-granule membrane protein that is expressed on the platelet plasma membrane during degranulation. PMID: 2411738

  • not present on the surfaces of unstimulated platelets, but thrombin stimulation resulted in the massive expression of GMP-140 on the cell surface, with the immunogold label monodispersed. PMID: 2431732

  • is also synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and is localized in Weibel-Palade bodies. PMID: 2472431

GPV (Glycoprotein V)

  • a subunit of the platelet GPIb-V-IX receptor for von Willebrand factor and thrombin, is specifically found in platelets and mature megakaryocytes. PMID: 10552946

  • part of the GPIbIXV complex, has been suggested as a marker of leukoreduced platelets (PLT) activation. PMID: 16131384

  • a marker of in vivo platelet activation--study in a rat thrombosis model. PMID: 10739394

Imidazoline Receptors (IR-1)

  • IR-1 binding sites are a marker of mood state rather than of antidepressant-induced pharmacological regulation. PMID: 17166518

LAMP2 (lysosome-associated membrane protein-2)

  • cell surface lamp2 and CD63, like cell surface expression of GMP-140, may be good indicators of in vivo platelet activation and may be potentially useful in identifying patients with prethrombotic disorders. PMID: 7672086


PDMP (platelet-derived microparticles)

Platelet-Associated Factor XIIIa

  • a marker of platelet activation in patients with peripheral vascular disease. PMID: 8499406

Platelet Factor 4 (PF4)

P-selectin (CD62P)

  • considered the "gold standard" marker of platelet activation. PMID: 11571248

  • soluble P-selectin cannot serve as a surrogate marker to indicate platelet activation in the chest pain population. PMID: 10947910

  • soluble P-selectin may be considered as a potential prognostic marker in AMI (acute myocardial infarction) and PPH (primary pulmonary hypertension). PMID: 10833791

  • sP-selectin might be considered a marker of in vivo platelet activation in patients with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). PMID: 10695266

  • a marker of platelet function. PMID: 14687239

  • P-selectin expression on platelets would reveal a higher diagnostic sensitivity for detecting in vivo platelet activation than other markers. PMID: 11685040

  • soluble P-selectin is unlikely to arise from the endothelium and may be a new marker of platelet activation in atherosclerosis. PMID: 9241735


Serotonin (5-HT)

Thrombospondin (TSP)

  • platelet surface expression, has been shown to correlate with platelet activation. PMID: 10588461

Thromboxane B2

Other Platelet Markers

  • Suitability of measurement of swirling as a marker of platelet shape change in concentrates stored for transfusion. PMID: 16973500

  • spreading seems to be a morphological marker for platelet hyperreactivity. PMID: 16793710

  • circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are a more sensitive marker of in vivo platelet activation than platelet surface P-selectin. PMID: 11571248

  • the reticulated platelets (RP) and %RP are more feasible markers of thrombopoiesis and platelet life span, respectively, than the plasma glycocalicin (GC) level and GC index. PMID: 11070930

  • Hypotonic shock reaction as quality control marker for platelet concentrates. PMID: 9480164

  • Extrusion of ionized clacium as a marker of the platelet release response. PMID: 7295986

  • Reticulated platelets (RP) measurement by flow cytometry, directly from whole blood without manipulation, is a useful screening test to differentiate thrombocytopenia with high or low thrombopoietic activity. PMID: 17142171

  • Detection method for platelet activation markers. PMID: 12373813

  • Laboratory markers of platelet activation and their clinical significance. PMID: 10468151

  • Platelet aggregates as markers of platelet activation: characterization of flow cytometric method suitable for clinical applications. PMID: 9423814

  • CD62, thromboxane B2, and beta-thromboglobulin: a comparison between different markers of platelet activation after contact with biomaterials. PMID: 9260099

  • Markers of platelet activation and oxidant stress in atherothrombotic disease. PMID: 9198167

  • Flow cytometric analysis of platelet activation markers CD62P and CD63 in patients with coronary artery disease. PMID: 8957206

  • Elevated levels of plasma and urine beta-thromboglobulin or thromboxane-B2 as markers of real platelet hyperactivation in diabetic nephropathy. PMID: 1478544