Sex cord-stromal neoplasms account for ~10% of all ovarian neoplasms. They are composed of various cell types derived from gonadal stroma and sex cords. They account for most of the hormonally active ovarian tumors. Granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are the most common. Unlike patients with common epithelial tumors, in which 75% are considered to be at stage III or IV at diagnosis, patients with these tumors are at stage I at diagnosis 70% of the time. Also unlike common epithelial tumors, sex cord-stromal tumors often have more specific symptoms.
has become a most useful immunohistochemical marker of gonadal ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST), regardless if the tumors are primary, recurrent, or metastatic. PMID: 12502966
has been recently recognized as a more sensitive, but less specific marker for SCSTs and it may be used to recognize an inhibin-negative SCST. PMID: 12502966
a more sensitive but less specific marker than alpha-inhibin for ovarian sex cord-stromal neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study of 215 cases indicated that calretinin is particularly useful in the diagnosis of sex cord-stromal and fibrous neoplasms that are inhibin negative. PMID: 12409724