The Antibody Basic



  • What the Heck is an Antibody? - Antibody molecules are wonderful things. These molecules are made of protein - meaning - the molecule is a bunch of different individual amino acids hooked together in a row (a polymer of amino acids). Each antibody molecule has two different polymers hooked together - one of these amino acid polymers is known as the Heavy chain and the other one is known as the Light chain. Guess why?

  • Antibody Structure - Antibodies are immune system-related proteins called immunoglobulins. Each antibody consists of four polypeptides– two heavy chains and two light chains joined to form a "Y" shaped molecule.

  • Mike's Immunoglobulin Structure/Function Home Page - These webpages on immunoglobulin structure and function have been prepared by Mike Clark, PhD, Cambridge University, Cambridge UK. The pages here stem from my own academic teaching and research interests in immunoglobulin structure and function. My intention is to continue to develop them as a resource not only for my own use but also as a reference source for students and researchers with a similar interest in immunoglobulins. However you should be aware that I exercise my full right to copyright over the material that I have produced.

  • Antibody Recognition of Antigen - The staggeringly large repertoire of antibodies with different antigen-binding specificity is the basis for the immune system's ability to recognize virtually all foreign antigens.

  • An Introduction to Immunoglobulin Structure By David Marcey - This exhibit displays molecules in the left part of the screen, and text that addresses structure-function relationships of the molecules in the right part (below). Use the scrollbar to the right to scroll through the text of this exhibit.

  • Making and Using Antibodies - Scope and objective. Biological scientists have used antibodies for many years to study proteins; but, as is the case with protein purification and recombinant DNA technology, the ways antibodies are produced and used has led to an increasingly powerful technology. The purpose of this section is to discuss the way these antibodies are produced and how they can be used.

  • Antibody Storage and Handling (Hevner Laboratory, University of Washington School of Medicine).

  • Tips and Hints for the storage of Antibodies - Storage of lyophilized antibodies: All our products are shipped lyophilized (freeze-dried). Unlabeled antibodies are stable without loss of quality at ambient temperatures for several weeks or even a few months. They can be stored at 4°C for several years.

  • Antibody Storage (Pacific Immunology Corporation) - Because antibodies have evolved to retain activity in a wide range of biological conditions, storage is relatively straightforward. In comparison to other purified proteins, antibody storage buffers rarely require the use of supplements such as glycerol. However, because there is a risk of contamination from bacteria, the addition of an antimicrobial agent such as sodium azide is recommended.

  • Antibody Storage (ProteinChemist) - Antibodies, like most proteins, do not like to be freeze-thawed. Avoid repetitive freezing of your solution. The best way to store your antibody is to keep a high protein concentration (>1 mg/ml), add some protease inhibitors, and aliquot it for use. Then freeze the aliquots and keep just one around for day to day use at four degrees C.

  • Monoclonal antibody storage conditions, and concentration effects on immunohistochemical specificity - Monoclonal antibodies against a 24,000 dalton intracellular estrogen-regulated protein in human breast cancer cells were used to study storage conditions and the effects of monoclonal antibody concentrations on immunohistochemical antigen localization.

  • Antibody Storage (ABR - Affinity BioReagents) - Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Antibodies can be adversely effected by freeze/thaw cycles. It is usually preferable to store antibodies for a few days at 4o C rather than expose them to multiple freeze/thaw cycles.



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